Emerging Deep Learning Architectures

By Team Acumentica


Emerging Deep Learning Architectures

Before focusing on some of the emerging developments AI architecture, let’s revisit the current transformer architecture and explain its etymology.

The Transformer is a type of deep learning model introduced in a paper titled “Attention Is All You Need” by Vaswani et al., published by researchers at Google Brain in 2017. It represents a significant advancement in the field of natural language processing (NLP) and neural networks.


Key Components and Purpose of the Transformer:



Self-Attention Mechanism: The core innovation of the Transformer is the self-attention mechanism, which allows the model to weigh the importance of different words in a sentence when encoding a word. This helps in capturing long-range dependencies and context better than previous models like RNNs (Recurrent Neural Networks) and LSTMs (Long Short-Term Memory networks).

Multi-Head Attention: This mechanism involves multiple attention layers running in parallel, allowing the model to focus on different parts of the sentence simultaneously.

Feed-Forward Neural Networks: Each layer in the Transformer includes fully connected feed-forward networks applied independently to each position.

Positional Encoding: Since the Transformer does not have a built-in notion of the order of sequences, it adds positional encodings to give the model information about the relative positions of the words.



Efficiency: The primary purpose of the Transformer was to improve the efficiency and performance of NLP tasks. Traditional models like RNNs suffer from long training times and difficulty in capturing long-range dependencies. The Transformer, with its parallelizable architecture, addresses these issues.

Scalability: The architecture is highly scalable, allowing it to be trained on large datasets and making it suitable for pre-training large language models.

Versatility: Transformers have been used in a wide range of NLP tasks, including translation, summarization, and text generation. The architecture’s flexibility has also led to its application in other fields such as vision and reinforcement learning.


Creation and Impact:

Creators: The Transformer was created by a team of researchers at Google Brain, including Ashish Vaswani, Noam Shazeer, Niki Parmar, Jakob Uszkoreit, Llion Jones, Aidan N. Gomez, Łukasz Kaiser, and Illia Polosukhin.

Impact: The introduction of the Transformer has led to significant advancements in NLP. It laid the foundation for subsequent models like BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) and GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer), revolutionizing the field and setting new benchmarks in various language tasks.

The success of the Transformer architecture has made it a fundamental building block in modern AI research and development, especially in the domain of language modeling and understanding.


Evolution of GPT Models:


GPT-1 (2018)

Architecture: GPT-1 uses the Transformer decoder architecture. It consists of multiple layers of self-attention and feed-forward neural networks.

Pre-training: The model was pre-trained on a large corpus of text data in an unsupervised manner. This means it learned language patterns, syntax, and semantics from vast amounts of text without any explicit labeling.

Fine-tuning: After pre-training, GPT-1 was fine-tuned on specific tasks with labeled data to adapt it to perform well on those tasks.

Objective: The model was trained using a language modeling objective, where it predicts the next word in a sequence given the previous words. This allows the model to generate coherent and contextually relevant text.


GPT-2 (2019)

Architecture: GPT-2 followed the same Transformer decoder architecture but with a much larger scale, having up to 1.5 billion parameters.

Training Data: It was trained on a diverse dataset called WebText, which includes text from various web pages to ensure broad language understanding.

Capabilities: GPT-2 demonstrated impressive capabilities in generating human-like text, performing tasks such as translation, summarization, and question-answering without task-specific fine-tuning.

Release Strategy: Initially, OpenAI was cautious about releasing the full model due to concerns about potential misuse, but eventually, the complete model was made available.


GPT-3 (2020)

Architecture: GPT-3 further scaled up the Transformer architecture, with up to 175 billion parameters, making it one of the largest language models at the time.

Few-Shot Learning: A key feature of GPT-3 is its ability to perform few-shot, one-shot, and zero-shot learning, meaning it can understand and perform tasks with little to no task-specific training data.

API and Applications: OpenAI released GPT-3 as an API, allowing developers to build applications that leverage its powerful language generation and understanding capabilities. This led to a wide range of innovative applications in various domains, including chatbots, content creation, code generation, and more.


Key Aspects of GPT Models


Transformer Decoder: GPT models use the decoder part of the Transformer architecture, which is designed for generative tasks. The decoder takes an input sequence and generates an output sequence, making it suitable for tasks like text completion and generation.


Pre-training and Fine-tuning: The two-phase approach of pre-training on large-scale text data followed by fine-tuning on specific tasks allows GPT models to leverage vast amounts of unstructured data for broad language understanding while adapting to specific applications.


Scale and Performance: The scaling of model parameters from GPT-1 to GPT-3 has shown that larger models with more parameters tend to perform better on a wide range of NLP tasks, demonstrating the power of scaling in neural network performance.


OpenAI’s development of the GPT models exemplifies how the foundational Transformer architecture can be scaled and adapted to create powerful and versatile language models. These models have significantly advanced the state of NLP and enabled a wide range of applications, showcasing the potential of AI to understand and generate human-like text.


Key Contributions of OpenAI in Developing GPT Models:


Scaling the Model:

Parameter Size: OpenAI demonstrated the importance of scaling up the number of parameters in the model. The transition from GPT-1 (110 million parameters) to GPT-2 (1.5 billion parameters) and then to GPT-3 (175 billion parameters) showed that larger models tend to perform better on a wide range of NLP tasks.

Compute Resources: OpenAI utilized extensive computational resources to train these large models. This involved not just the hardware but also optimizing the training process to efficiently handle such massive computations.


Training Data and Corpus:

Diverse and Large-Scale Data: OpenAI curated large and diverse datasets for training, such as the WebText dataset used for GPT-2, which includes text from various web pages to ensure broad language understanding. This comprehensive dataset is crucial for learning diverse language patterns.

Unsupervised Learning: The models were trained in an unsupervised manner on this large corpus, allowing them to learn from the data without explicit labels, making them adaptable to various tasks.


Training Techniques:

Transfer Learning: OpenAI effectively utilized transfer learning, where the models are pre-trained on a large corpus and then fine-tuned for specific tasks. This approach allows the models to leverage the general language understanding gained during pre-training for specific applications.

Few-Shot, One-Shot, and Zero-Shot Learning: Particularly with GPT-3, OpenAI showed that the model could perform new tasks with little to no additional training data. This ability to generalize from a few examples is a significant advancement.


Practical Applications and API:

API Release: By releasing GPT-3 as an API, OpenAI made the model accessible to developers and businesses, enabling a wide range of innovative applications in areas such as chatbots, content generation, coding assistance, and more.

Ethical Considerations: OpenAI also contributed to the discussion on the ethical use of AI, initially taking a cautious approach to releasing GPT-2 due to concerns about misuse and later implementing safety mitigations and monitoring with the GPT-3 API.


Benchmarking and Evaluation:

Performance on Benchmarks: OpenAI rigorously evaluated the GPT models on various NLP benchmarks, demonstrating their capabilities and setting new standards in the field.

Broader Impacts Research: OpenAI has published research on the broader impacts of their models, considering the societal implications, potential biases, and ways to mitigate risks.


While the Transformer architecture provided the foundational technology, OpenAI’s significant contributions include scaling the models, optimizing training techniques, curating large and diverse datasets, making the models accessible through an API, and considering ethical implications. These innovations have advanced the state of the art in NLP and demonstrated the practical potential of large-scale language models in various applications.

Emerging AI Architectures

Recent research has proposed several new architectures that could potentially surpass the Transformer in efficiency and capability for various tasks. Here are some notable examples:


Overview: Megalodon introduces several advancements over traditional Transformers, such as the Complex Exponential Moving Average (CEMA) for better long-sequence modeling and Timestep Normalization to address instability issues in sequence modeling.

Innovations: It uses normalized attention mechanisms and a two-hop residual connection to improve training stability and efficiency, making it more suitable for long-sequence tasks.

Performance: Megalodon has shown significant improvements in training efficiency and stability, especially for large-scale models.



Overview: Pathways, developed by Google, aims to address the limitations of current AI models by enabling a single model to handle multiple tasks and learn new tasks more efficiently.

Innovations: This architecture is designed to be versatile and scalable, allowing models to leverage previous knowledge across different tasks, reducing the need to train separate models from scratch for each task.

Impact: Pathways represents a shift towards more generalist AI systems that can perform a wider range of tasks with better resource efficiency.



Overview: The Mamba architecture, introduced by researchers from Carnegie Mellon and Princeton, focuses on reducing the computational complexity associated with Transformers, particularly for long input sequences.

Innovations: Mamba employs a selective state-space model that processes data more efficiently by deciding which information to retain and which to discard based on the input context.

Performance: It has demonstrated the ability to process data five times faster than traditional Transformers while maintaining or even surpassing their performance, making it highly suitable for applications requiring long context sequence.



Overview: Jamba is a hybrid architecture combining aspects of the Transformer and Mamba models, leveraging the strengths of both.

Innovations: It uses a mix of attention and Mamba layers, incorporating Mixture of Experts (MoE) to increase model capacity while managing computational resources efficiently.

Performance: Jamba excels in processing long sequences, offering substantial improvements in throughput and memory efficiency compared to standard Transformer models.

Links  and review and of some of the published papers:

Here are the links to the published papers and resources for the mentioned research architectures:



– Megalodon: Efficient LLM Pretraining and Inference with Unlimited Context Length](https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.08801)



Introducing Pathways: A Next-Generation AI Architecture](https://blog.google/technology/ai/introducing-pathways-next-generation-ai-architecture/)



Mamba: Linear-Time Sequence Modeling with Selective State Spaces (https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.19887)



Jamba: A Hybrid Transformer-Mamba Language Model (https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.19887)


These links will take you to the full research papers and articles that detail the innovations and performance of these new architectures.


Review and Assessment


Megalodon: Efficient LLM Pretraining and Inference with Unlimited Context Length

Overview: This paper introduces Megalodon, which focuses on improving efficiency in long-sequence modeling. Key innovations include Complex Exponential Moving Average (CEMA), Timestep Normalization, and normalized attention mechanisms.

Key Points to Focus On:

CEMA: Understand how extending EMA to the complex domain enhances long-sequence modeling.

Timestep Normalization: Learn how this normalization method addresses the limitations of layer normalization in sequence data.

Normalized Attention: Study how these mechanisms stabilize attention and improve model performance.

Implications: Megalodon’s techniques can be crucial for applications requiring efficient processing of long sequences, such as document analysis or large-scale text generation.

Link: [Megalodon: Efficient LLM Pretraining and Inference with Unlimited Context Length](https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.08801)


Pathways: A Next-Generation AI Architecture

Overview: Pathways is Google’s approach to creating a versatile AI system capable of handling multiple tasks and learning new ones quickly. It emphasizes efficiency, scalability, and broad applicability.

Key Points to Focus On:

Multi-Task Learning: Focus on how Pathways enables a single model to perform multiple tasks efficiently.

Transfer Learning: Understand the mechanisms that allow Pathways to leverage existing knowledge to learn new tasks faster.

Scalability: Learn about the architectural features that support scaling across various tasks and data modalities.

Implications: Pathways aims to create more generalist AI systems, reducing the need for task-specific models and enabling broader application.

Link: Introducing Pathways: A Next-Generation AI Architecture (https://blog.google/technology/ai/introducing-pathways-next-generation-ai-architecture/)


Mamba: Linear-Time Sequence Modeling with Selective State Spaces

Overview: The Mamba architecture introduces a linear-time approach to sequence modeling using selective state-space models. It aims to address the quadratic complexity of traditional Transformers.

Key Points to Focus On:

Selective Memory Mechanism: Study how Mamba selectively retains or discards information based on input context.

Computational Efficiency: Understand how Mamba reduces computational complexity, especially for long sequences.

Performance Benchmarks: Review the performance improvements and benchmarks compared to traditional Transformers.

Implications: Mamba is particularly useful for applications involving long input sequences, such as natural language processing and genomics.

Link: Mamba: Linear-Time Sequence Modeling with Selective State Spaces (https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.19887)


Jamba: A Hybrid Transformer-Mamba Language Model

Overview: Jamba combines elements of both the Transformer and Mamba architectures, integrating attention and Mamba layers with Mixture of Experts (MoE) to optimize performance and efficiency.

Key Points to Focus On:

Hybrid Architecture: Learn how Jamba integrates attention and Mamba layers to balance performance and computational efficiency.

Mixture of Experts (MoE): Study how MoE layers increase model capacity while managing computational resources.

Throughput and Memory Efficiency: Focus on how Jamba achieves high throughput and memory efficiency, especially with long sequences.

Implications: Jamba offers a flexible and scalable solution for tasks requiring long-context processing, making it suitable for applications in language modeling and beyond.

Link: Jamba: A Hybrid Transformer-Mamba Language Model (https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.19887)


Use Case:


Stock Predictions:

For predicting stocks, it’s crucial to choose an architecture that can handle long sequences efficiently, process large amounts of data, and provide accurate predictions with minimal computational overhead. Based on the recent advancements, I would recommend focusing on the Mamba or  Jamba** architectures for the following reasons:



Efficiency with Long Sequences:

Mamba addresses the quadratic computational complexity of Transformers, making it more suitable for processing the long sequences typical in stock market data.

It uses a selective state-space model, which efficiently decides which information to retain and which to discard based on the input context. This feature is crucial for handling the high volume and variety of stock market data.



Mamba has demonstrated superior performance in handling long sequences, processing data five times faster than traditional Transformer models under similar conditions while maintaining high accuracy.



The linear scaling of computational requirements with input sequence length makes Mamba ideal for applications requiring the analysis of extensive historical data to predict stock trends.



Hybrid Approach:

Jamba combines the best features of both the Transformer and Mamba architectures, integrating attention layers for capturing dependencies and Mamba layers for efficient sequence processing.

This hybrid approach ensures that you can leverage the strengths of both architectures, optimizing for performance and computational efficiency.


Memory and Throughput Efficiency:

Jamba is designed to be highly memory-efficient, crucial for handling the extensive datasets typical in stock prediction tasks. It also provides high throughput, making it suitable for real-time or near-real-time predictions.


Flexibility and Customization:

The ability to mix and match attention and Mamba layers allows you to tailor the architecture to the specific needs of your stock prediction models, balancing accuracy and computational requirements effectively.


Why Not Pathways or Megalodon?

Pathways is more focused on multi-task learning and generalist AI applications, which might be overkill if your primary focus is stock prediction. Its strengths lie in handling a wide variety of tasks rather than optimizing for a single, data-intensive application.

Megalodon offers advancements in long-sequence modeling and normalization techniques, but the specific innovations in Mamba and Jamba directly address the computational and efficiency challenges associated with stock prediction.

For stock prediction, where efficiency, scalability, and accurate processing of long sequences are paramount, Mamba and Jamba stand out as the best choices. They offer significant improvements in computational efficiency and performance for long-sequence tasks, making them well-suited for the demands of stock market prediction. Here are the links to further explore these architectures:

Mamba: Linear-Time Sequence Modeling with Selective State Spaces (https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.19887)

Jamba: A Hybrid Transformer-Mamba Language Model (https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.19887)


Companies and Research Groups Deploying Mamba and Jamba:





AI21 Labs: 

Deployment of Jamba: AI21 Labs has developed and released Jamba, a hybrid model combining elements of the Mamba architecture with traditional Transformer components. Jamba is designed to handle long context windows efficiently, boasting a context window of up to 256,000 tokens, which significantly exceeds the capabilities of many existing models like Meta’s Llama 2.

Focus on Practical Applications: Jamba aims to optimize memory usage and computational efficiency, making it suitable for applications that require extensive contextual understanding, such as complex language modeling and data analysis tasks.


Research Institutions:

Carnegie Mellon and Princeton Universities: Researchers from these institutions initially developed the Mamba architecture to address the computational inefficiencies of Transformers, particularly for long-sequence modeling tasks. Their work focuses on the selective state-space model, which enhances both efficiency and effectiveness by dynamically adapting to input context.


Key Features to Focus On:

Efficiency with Long Sequences: Both Mamba and Jamba excel in handling long input sequences efficiently, reducing the computational burden that typically scales quadratically with Transformers.

Selective State-Space Model: The core innovation in Mamba involves a selective memory mechanism that dynamically retains or discards information based on its relevance, significantly improving processing efficiency.

Hybrid Approach in Jamba: Jamba’s combination of Mamba layers and traditional attention mechanisms allows for a balanced trade-off between performance and computational resource management, making it highly adaptable for various tasks.


Implications for Stock Prediction:

Given their capabilities, both Mamba and Jamba are well-suited for stock prediction applications, which require the analysis of long historical data sequences and efficient real-time processing. By leveraging these architectures, companies can develop more robust and scalable stock prediction models that handle extensive datasets with greater accuracy and efficiency.


For more detailed information on these architectures and their applications, you can refer to the following sources:

SuperDataScience on the Mamba Architecture (https://www.superdatascience.com/podcast/the-mamba-architecture-superior-to-transformers-in-llms)

AI21 Labs’ Jamba Introduction (https://www.ai21.com)

Mamba Explained by Kola Ayonrinde (https://www.kolaayonrinde.com)




To leverage the latest advancements in AI architectures, focus on understanding the unique contributions of each model:

Megalodon for its enhanced long-sequence modeling techniques.

Pathways for its approach to multi-task learning and scalability.

Mamba for its efficient sequence modeling with selective state-space mechanisms.

Jamba for its hybrid architecture combining the strengths of Transformers and Mamba.

These insights will help you choose the right architecture for your specific application needs, whether they involve processing long sequences, handling multiple tasks, or optimizing computational efficiency.

These emerging architectures reflect ongoing efforts to overcome the limitations of Transformers, particularly in terms of computational efficiency and the ability to handle long sequences. Each brings unique innovations that could shape the future of AI and large language models, offering promising alternatives for various applications.

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